Autobiography as a genre is a representation of the self. It is an extremely powerful genre through which one can depict the world of his own. In case of Dalit literature, the emergence of Dalit autobiography gives the Dalit writers a platform to portray the true world of the people who have historically been tortured, exploited, marginalized, and humiliated by the upper caste. It delineates how society remains unjust to them from times immemorial and stands as a strategy for survival of the Dalits to challenge marginality, oppression, and social exclusion. Manohar Mouli Biswas, a Bengali Dalit activist and writer renders his sufferings as a Dalit in his autobiography ‘Surviving in My World’. He originally wrote and published it as ‘ Amar Bhubane Ami Benche Thaki’ in Bengali in 2013. Later it was translated and edited into English by Angana Dutta and Jaydeep Sarangi as ‘Surviving in My World: Growing Up Dalit in Bengal’ in 2015. He portrays how he and his community (namasudra) was subjected to exploitation and marginalization in the society. He also criticizes how caste discrimination is still prevalent in today’s India and stand as a resistance.
In Shakespeare’s King Lear animal imagery reaches its most complete development. Shakespeare is digging a little deeper here than in any other play as to the philosophy of the theme. In Lear a greater number of important tragic characters sink below the level of beasts than in any other play, and Shakespeare is conscious of the beast idea as they degenerate.
In the very beginning of the play the beastly power and authority of Lear as a king is expressed through his words, “come not between the dragon and his wrath”. Shakespeare uses various tools to build up Goneril and Regan’s character, but animal imagery and extended metaphors are the most effective in portraying Goneril and Regan’s consuming greed for power. The Fool is the first to use animal imagery to describe these two savage sisters. “For you know, nuncle, the hedge-sparrow fed the cuckoo so long, that it had its head bit off by it young. So out went the candle, and we were left darkling”. This comparison of Goneril to a cuckoo suggests that like the hedge-sparrow who had to rear the young cuckoo chick, Lear has brought up Goneril and she is the ungrateful cuckoo killing the one that raised her. This creates a strong visual image in our minds of a monstrous inhuman woman, who turns on her Own parent to prey on him Shakespeare continues to build on this characterisation of Goneril, likening her to a sea- monster “Ingratitude, thou marble-hearted fiend, more hideous, when thou showst thee in a child than the sea-monster.” This brings to mind connotations of a stealthy watery Loch Ness monster, re- enforcing Goneril’s “marble” heart and unfeeling nature. Lear goes on to compare her to other predatory animals, saying “Detested kite, thou liest!” and declaring a final curse on her, that she might have a childless womb, he says “how sharper than a serpent’s tooth it is to have a thankless child!” This quick succession of vivid animal images creates layer upon layer of a wild savage collage, portraying Goneril as a greedy ruthless woman.
Swift’s ‘Gulliver’s travels’ is not a travel writing at all. It is a travel into absurd and fantastic lands. It uses maps, figures, speed of ships, latitudes, longitudes. It uses markers of travel literature like topography, climate, bridges. It provides actual physical details but all of these are journeys into fantastic lands. Swift is also mocking the tradition of travel writing itself. He is suggesting that most of this travelogues written during the Elizabethan and early Enlightenment ages were actually admixtures of facts and fictions. Therefore there is a strong critique of the factuality of the travel writing within the text also. And Swift’s satire in Gulliver’s Travels is well portrayed.
Gulliver’s Travels is not a travel writing. It is a particular kind of satire, Mennipean satire ( a satire which is directed towards a particular school of philosophy). In this case Swift is a comprehensive critique of the philosophy of the Enlightenment.
Human beings are curious by nature. Hence we always look for information that will benefit us or inspire us in some way and a solid fact never goes unappreciated. So here we have 15 amazing facts about English language.
1. Earth is the only planet in our solar system that’s not named after a god. All other planets are named after the Greek and Roman gods and goddesses.
2. The word ‘ALPHABET’ has come from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet: alpha, bēta. Infact there are many loan words taken from the Greek.
Hardy’s plot construction in Far From the Madding Crowd suffers from a few weaknesses. In the first place, the plot is rather thin and slight. The entire story is about a woman, namely, Bathsheba Everdene who is loved by three men. At the end of the novel, two of the lovers, Sergeant Troy and Mr. Boldwood are removed and the scope is made for the third one, namely, Gabriel Oak, to marry the heroine. To a host of critics, the way in which this end is achieved is rather unconvincing and contrived. Oak is in reality, the first lover of the heroine, though throughout the novel there is no sign of affection for him on her part while she married Troy and promised to marry Boldwood after the supposed death of Troy. Perhaps through this Hardy offers a reward to the steady and consistent love of Oak, but it is far from satisfying if thought from logical point of view. Moreover, according to many critics, it does not suit the entire tragic foreboding of the novel also. Throughout the novel, Hardy shows the struggle between man on the one hand and an omnipotent and indifferent Fate on the other, which is malevolent to all human hopes. The ending of the novel runs contrary to this tragic bias.
Hardy is primarily a storyteller and should be viewed more as a chronicler of moods and deeds than as a philosopher. Yet a novel such as Far from the Madding Crowd which raises many questions about society, religion, morals, and the contrast between a good life and its rewards, is bound to make the reader curious about the authors vision of life, which is behind of his work.
“Postcolonialism,” one of the most important terms in literary studies today, is not an easy one to define. There are, infact, two different forms of the word in circulation: “post-colonial” (with a hyphen) and “postcolonial” (without a hyphen). And this minor discrepancy reveals two variations of the basic definition. One is easy to explain: “post- colonial with a hyphen’ is “simply a descriptive word, marking literature by people of formerly colonized countries.” But, ‘postcolonialism without a hyphen’ is a much broader term, suggesting not only a period and a body of literature, “but also describing a ‘knowledge-politics’ a lens for viewing the world and a theoretical tool for understanding it.” In this sense colonialism, even if it is produced during postcolonial, primarily due to its oppositional nature. Moreover, Postcolonial period is “not a clear-cut terrain, because it is still developing now.” The study of colonialism and its after-effects is not new, but the new historical situations that require it are not safely in the past either. Postcolonialism thus offers us ways of understanding the “history of the present.” Infact, in the contexts of anti-colonial struggles in Asia, Africa, and South America, much of the ideas of resistance, cultural nationalism, nativism had emerged, and on the basis of these, critics like Edward Said have generated the modes of ‘postcolonial reading’.
Set against a richly pictorial background , Tagore’s ‘The Golden Boat‘ ( Sonar Tori ) , the very opening poem of the poetic volume of the same name is indeed an allegoric poem with a deeply philosophical meaning. Infact, Tagore’s two most famous poems of the Shelidah period, ‘The Golden Boat’ and ‘I will not let you go’ published in Sonar Tori in 1894 , reflect his strong realisation about the ultimate meaning of human life and deeds : the world accepts all the fruits of our labour but we cannot secure our place there forever. The ever urge of human heart to stamp his impresses on his production, artistic or material,is infact futile. The harvest of our lives stays on in some form or other but we ourselves are not to be accommodated within the world – scheme.
A movement of thought in the humanities , widespread in anthropology , linguistics , and literary theory , and influential in the 1950s and 1960s , Structuralism is based primarily on the linguistic theories of Ferdinand de Saussure , Broadly speaking Structuralism holds that all human activity and its products , even perception and thought itself , are constructed and not natural , and in particular that everything has meaning because of the language system in which we operate . It is closely related to Semiotics , the study of signs , symbols and communication , and how meaning is constructed and understood . In literary theory , such a view challenged the belief that a work of literature reflects a given reality ; instead , a text is seen as constituted of linguistic conventions . The anthropologist Claude Levi – Strauss was an important champion of structuralism , as was Roman Jakobsen . Northrop Frye , Noam Chomsky , Roland Barthes and the Marxist theorists Louis Althusser were also instrumental in developing the theory and techniques of Structuralism .